This tiny slice of silicon, etched in Jelena Vuckovic’s lab at Stanford with a pattern that resembles a bar code, is one step on the way toward linking computer components with light instead of wires.
Stanford Univ. engineers have designed and built a prism-like device that can split a beam of light into different colors and bend the light at right angles, a development that could eventually lead to computers that use optics, rather than electricity, to carry data.They describe what they call an “optical link”.
The optical link is a tiny slice of silicon etched with a pattern that resembles a bar code. When a beam of light is shined at the link, two different wavelengths (colors) of light split off at right angles to the input, forming a T shape. This is a big step toward creating a complete system for connecting computer components with light rather than wires.
Creating a silicon prism
The Stanford structure was made by etching a tiny bar code pattern into silicon that split waves of light like a small-scale prism. The team engineered the effect using a subtle understanding of how the speed of light changes as it moves through different materials.
A property of materials called the index of refraction characterizes the difference in speed. The higher the index, the more slowly light will travel in that material. Air has an index of refraction of nearly 1 and water of 1.3. Infrared light travels through silicon even more slowly: it has an index of refraction of 3.5.
The Stanford algorithm designed a structure that alternated strips of silicon and gaps of air in a specific way. The device takes advantage of the fact that as light passes from one medium to the next, some light is reflected and some is transmitted. When light traveled through the silicon bar code, the reflected light interfered with the transmitted light in complicated ways.The algorithm designed the bar code to use this subtle interference to direct one wavelength to go left and a different wavelength to go right, all within a tiny silicon chip eight microns long.
The researchers designed these bar code patterns already knowing their desired function. Since they wanted C-band and O-band light routed in opposite directions, they let the algorithm design a structure to achieve it.
To design their device they adapted concepts from convex optimization, a mathematical approach to solving complex problems such as stock market trading. With help from Stanford electrical engineering Prof. Stephen Boyd, an expert in convex optimization, they discovered how to automatically create novel shapes at the nanoscale to cause light to behave in specific ways.
“For many years, nanophotonics researchers made structures using simple geometries and regular shapes.The structures you see produced by this algorithm are nothing like what anyone has done before,” Vuckovic said.
The algorithm began its work with a simple design of just silicon. Then, through hundreds of tiny adjustments, it found better and better bar code structures for producing the desired output light.
Previous designs of nanophotonic structures were based on regular geometric patterns and the designer’s intuition. The Stanford algorithm can design this structure in just 15 minutes on a laptop computer.
They have also used this algorithm to design a wide variety of other devices, like the super-compact “Swiss cheese” structures that route light beams to different outputs not based on their color, but based on their mode, i.e., based on how they look. For example, a light beam with a single lobe in the cross-section goes to one output, and a double lobed beam (looking like two rivers flowing side by side) goes to the other output. Such a mode router is equally as important as the bar code color splitter, as different modes are also used in optical communications to transmit information.
Source: Stanford Univ.